Pest Interactions
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Leaf Response
Growth Response
Pest Interactions
Soil Response
Ozone Modeling


Pest Interactions

Melampsora leaf rust on aspen (left) was found to increase 3 to 5 fold on the presence of ozone (right). Karnosky et al. 2002. Global Change Biology. 8: 329-338.
Number of aphids and natural enemies per tree on aspen. Percy et al. 2002. Nature. 420: 403-407. Presence of wood-boring insect galls on five aspen clones for the four treatments (Mattson, unpublished).
Aphid populations appear to be very responsive to both elevated CO2 and elevated O3.  We are studying aphid life cycles to determine if they are affected by elevated CO2 and/or O3.

The Northern Forest Ecosystem Experiment (NFEE) is funded by the US Forest Service. The Aspen FACE Experiment is funded principally by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additional support is from the USFS Global Change Program, Michigan Technological University, the Canadian Forest Service and the USFS Northern Research Station.
For more information on this project, contact Dr. Andrew J. Burton (Michigan Technological University) at (906) 487-2566 or, or Dr. Mark E. Kubiske (Northern Research Station) at (715) 362-1108 or
For questions or suggestions regarding this website, please contact Wendy Jones at
Last updated: November, 2012