Soil Response
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Leaf Response
Growth Response
Pest Interactions
Soil Response
Ozone Modeling

Leaf Litter and Microbial Response

Leaf litter produced by aspen and birch (aspen-birch ring section only) growing under elevated CO2 and O3. Dead fine root biomass was determined from cores collected in the aspen and aspen-birch ring sections (Data from Lindroth and Zak, unpublished). Rates of soil respiration averaged over the 1999 fiend season (A), and rates of microbial respiration determined by laboratory incubation (B; data from King et al 2001 and Zak, unpublished).

The Northern Forest Ecosystem Experiment (NFEE) is funded by the US Forest Service. The Aspen FACE Experiment is funded principally by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additional support is from the USFS Global Change Program, Michigan Technological University, the Canadian Forest Service and the USFS Northern Research Station.
For more information on this project, contact Dr. Andrew J. Burton (Michigan Technological University) at (906) 487-2566 or, or Dr. Mark E. Kubiske (Northern Research Station) at (715) 362-1108 or
For questions or suggestions regarding this website, please contact Janet Pikkarainen at
Last updated: July, 2010